2000 Annual Report


Gibeau, M. and Herrero, S. 2001. Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project:
A Progress Report for 2000 (ESGBP): April 2001. Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB.
Note: You can also download a PDF version of this report.
NEW FEATURE: Table of Contents links and Table links are activated in this file (HTML format).
Prepared for the Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Steering Committee
This paper contains preliminary results of an on-going study and should not be cited
without permission from the authors.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  • STUDY AREA
  • METHODS
  • RESULTS

WEBSITE
POPULATION STUDIES
CAPTURE
TELEMETRY DATA SET
POPULATION DEMOGRAPHICS

  • SCHEDULED CONCLUSION
  • LITERATURE CITED

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Grizzly bear capture data in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 2000
Table 2. Status of all grizzly bears captured in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, as of November 2000
Table 3. Unduplicated grizzly bear females with cubs of the year in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 – 2000
Table 4. Number of unduplicated females with cubs of the year (COY), and 6 year running averages in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 – 2000
Table 5. Reproductive status of known female grizzly bears in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 2000
Table 6. Summary of grizzly bear mortalities in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 – 2000. 9
Table 7. Summary of grizzly bear translocations in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 – 2000
Table 8. Summary of known grizzly bear mortalities and removals by jurisdiction and activity in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993-2000
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
A very successful seventh field season would not have been possible without the dedication of field biologists C. Hague, B. McClarty and S. Stevens. Their efforts were augmented through the largely volunteer support of C. Campbell. Assistance in coordination of field staff was provided by A. Dibb, S. Donelon and T. Hurd. Trapping was conducted by the Banff National Park Warden Service and Alberta Natural Resources Service. Veterinary care was provided by Dr. Todd Shury. Several Alberta Conservation Officers and Banff National Park Wardens provided invaluable safety backup, field assistance and logistical support through all stages of monitoring. Exemplary flying skills were provided by Alpine Helicopters of Canmore and fixed wing pilot M. Dupuis and T. Kulbida of Wildlife Observation Air Services.
The Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Steering Committee helped implement and guided this research. All steering committee participants contribute either money, time or both toward the objectives. Through the Steering Committee, governments, industry, business and conservation groups work together to support this project. The supporters include:
Alberta Environment
Natural Resources Service (NRS)
Lands & Forest Service
Alberta Cattle Commission
Alberta Conservation Association
Alberta Energy Utilities Board Committee (EUB)
Alberta Off-Highway Vehicle Association
Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks, and Wildlife Foundation
Alpine Helicopters
AMOCO Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd.
Anonymous Foundation donor
Bow Valley Naturalists
British Columbia Ministry of Environment
Wildlife Division
Calgary Area Outdoor Council (CAOC)
Calgary Zoo
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP)
Canadian Pacific Charitable Foundation
Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS)Calgary/Banff Chapter
Canmore Collegiate High School
Crown of the Continent Electronic Data Atlas
Eagle Terrace Developments
Elbow Valley Campgrounds
Friends of Banff
Friends of Kananaskis Country
Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Project
Human Resources Development Canada
Husky Oil
Miistakis Institute
Mistaya Communications
Mountain Electronics
Mountain Equipment Co-op
National Science and Engineering Research Council
(NSERC)
Parks Canada
Resorts of the Canadian Rockies
Rigel Energy
Shell Canada LimitedSpray Lakes Sawmills (1980) Ltd.
Springbank Middle School
Switching Gear
Totem Outdoor Outfitters
Three Sisters Resorts
University of Alberta
University of Calgary
Faculty of Environmental Design
Resources & the Environment Program
Warner Guiding and Outfitting Ltd.
Wilburforce Foundation
Wilderness Medical Society
World Wildlife Fund Canada (WWF)
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
During 2000 our research focused on gathering basic reproductive and mortality data for analysis of demographic parameters. Another important research question we focused on is how do grizzly bear’s spatial and temporal use patterns differ in areas of high human presence compared to areas with low human presence in a landscape, some of which is dominated by tourism activities? Our situation is unique in that no other grizzly bear study area in North America has both a high volume transcontentinal highway and railway dissecting occupied grizzly bear habitat along with intensive tourism. Analysis has never been done on the effects of such levels of human presence on grizzly bears. One important question is the extent to which the Bow River Valley continues to function as a major movement corridor for bears providing connectivity between habitats.
The overall goal of ESGBP research is to understand how developments and human-induced mortality impact grizzly bears. Specific research objectives include:
1. Determine the basic demographic parameters for the grizzly bear population within the study area.
2. Detect spatial and temporal activity patterns of bears given various levels of human influences.
3. Determine how the distribution of humans affects a bear’s ability to use the landscape.
4. Determine if population connectivity is being impeded by major transportation corridors.
5. Determine what adjustments to human activities would give bears better access to resources.
6. Suggest management alternatives for integrating land uses compatible with bear habitat and survival needs for the study area.
STUDY AREA
The area of interest remains unchanged from year 1 with the approximately 11,400 km2 Bow River Watershed, from its headwaters to approximately where it meets the prairies, as the core study area. The greater study area defined by the movement of radio-collared bears is about 22,000 km2 or roughly twice the size of the core study area. At the largest scale our research encompasses the 42,000 km2 Central Rockies Ecosystem (Komex International 1995).
METHODS
Methods for both the capture and monitoring of bears remain unchanged from the detailed description found in the year 1 progress report (Gibeau and Herrero 1995). Approximately 25 grizzly bears per year have active radio-collars. These bears are monitored from air and ground wherever they go and our budget permits. Aerial monitoring gives infrequent, but relatively unbiased data regarding location. This facilitates understanding of home range, movements and habitat use. Ground-based research allows intensive monitoring of grizzly bear activities related to development features such as towns, highways, campgrounds and trails. Mortality is monitored using both aerial and ground-based telemetry. The radio-telemetry monitoring area includes lands under several different jurisdictions. In the British Columbia portion of these lands, where some of our radio-collared grizzly bears are found, there is a Western Slopes Bear Research Project which provides complementary data and will allow a broader ecosystem versus provincial boundary-based understanding of grizzly bears in the Central Rockies Ecosystem.
RESULTS
WEBSITE
Most of the ESGBP publications plus considerable other related material can be found on this, the ESGBP website, and is available for downloading. Go to the Research Publications Section.
POPULATION STUDIES
CAPTURE
There was no planned trapping effort in 2000 although 4 grizzly bears were captured during management actions (Table 1).

ID

Sex

Age Estimate

Weight (kg)

Area

Comments

33

F

25a*

n/a

Two Jack

recapture

68

M

5a

n/a

Two Jack

 

69

F

3a

93

Nakiska

 

70

F

3a

79

Nakiska

* certainty code a= +/- 0 years, b= +/- 1-2 years, c= +/- 2-3 years
TELEMETRY DATA SET
Aerial and ground monitoring from early April until the first week of November produced 1641 point locations for the 2000 field season. Of these 439 (27 %) were from the air and 1202 (73%) from ground monitoring. Aerial locations were biased toward early morning hours. Ground locations were biased towards where observers could travel easily.
Since the project began in May 1994 a total of 61 individuals have been handled (Table 2). Of those, 15 have died, and 24 are currently radio collared. The sex/age breakdown of the current radio collared sample is as follows:
15 adult females 5 adult males
3 subadult females 1 subadult male
Table 2. Status of all grizzly bears captured in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, as of November 2000.

ID

Sex

Age class 1

Age at first

capture 2

Months monitored

Fate

Cause 3

Most recent sighting 4

10

M

AD

13a

07/94 – 06/96 and 04/97 – 06/98

lost

drop collar

 

11

M

SA

4b

05/94 – 03/96

     

11

 

AD

 

03/96 – 07/97

lost

drop collar

 

12

M

AD

13b

05/94 – 10/94

dead

self defense

 

13

M

SA

5a

05/94 – 03/95

     

13

 

AD

 

03/95 – 10/00

active

   

14

M

AD

9a

05/95 – 05/97

lost

no signal – b

 

15

M

AD

6a

05/94 – 10/00

active

   

16

M

SA

5a

08/93 – 03/94

     

16

 

AD

 

03/94 – 07/96

dead

removed to zoo

 

17

F

AD

10a

06/94 – 07/96

lost

drop collar

10/99

18

F

AD

6a

05/94 – 10/00

active

   

19

M

AD

6b

05/94 – 05/94

dead

accidental

 

20

M

AD

11a

05/94 – 07/94

lost

drop collar

 

21

M

SA

3a

05/94 – 07/95

dead

problem wildlife

 

22

M

AD

14a

05/94 – 05/94

dead

legal hunting

 

23

M

SA

3a

05/94 – 08/96

dead

problem wildlife

 

24

F

SA

5a

05/94 – 03/95

     

24

 

AD

 

03/95 – 10/00

active

   

25

M

AD

6a

05/94 – 09/94

lost

drop collar

07/95

26

F

AD

18a

06/94 – 09/99

dead

self defense

 

27

F

SA

2a

06/94 – 09/95

lost

no signal – b

06/99

28

F

AD

22a

06/94 – 08/96

dead

natural

 

29

M

SA

2a

never collared

     

30

F

AD

9a

09/94 – 10/00

active

   

31

F

AD

7c

06/94 – 04/96

lost

drop collar

 

32

F

AD

13b

06/94 – 10/97

lost

drop collar

 

33

F

AD

19a

06/94 – 09/99 and 08/00 – 10/00

active

   

34

M

AD

6a

05/95 – 11/96

lost

no signal – b

 

35

F

SA

4a

05/96 – 09/97

dead

treaty Indian

 

36

F

AD

8a

06/93 – 10/00

active

   

37

F

AD

10a

06/94 – 10/00

active

   

38

M

D

1a

never collared

     

39

F

SA

3a

05/95 – 08/96

lost

no signal – b

 

40

F

AD

15c

05/95 – 06/00

dead

natural

 

41

F

AD

12a

05/95 – 10/00

active

   

42

M

AD

7a

05/95 – 10/00

active

   

43

M

SA

5a

05/96 – 10/96

dead

illegal

 

44

M

SA

4a

06/95 – 08/96

dead

treaty Indian

 

ID

Sex

Age class 1

Age at first

capture 2

Months monitored

Fate

Cause 3

Most recent sighting 4

45

 

AD

 

06/00 – 10/00

active

   

46

F

AD

11a

06/95 – 10/00

active

   

47

F

AD

9a

06/96 – 10/00

active

   

48

F

D

2a

06/96 – 06/97

     

48

 

SA

 

06/97 – 09/97

lost

no signal – c

 

49

M

D

2a

06/96 – 06/97

     

49

 

SA

 

06/97 – 06/98

lost

no signal – b

10/99

50

M

SA

4a

06/96 – 06/96

lost

no signal – a

 

51

M

AD

8a

05/97 – 06/98

lost

drop collar

 

52

M

AD

7b

05/97 – 10/00

active

   

53

M

SA

3a

05/97 – 10/98

dead

illegal

 

54

M

AD

15a

06/97 – 10/99

lost

no signal -c

 

55

F

AD

6a

06/97 – 09/99

lost

drop collar

10/99

56

F

D

3a

05/97 – 06/98

     

56

 

SA

 

06/98 – 03/00

     

56

 

AD

 

03/00 – 10/00

active

   

57

F

SA

5a

05/97 – 03/98

     

57

 

AD

 

03/98 – 10/00

active

   

58

M

AD

9a

06/97 – 09/97

dead

problem wildlife

 

59

F

D

3a

05/97 – 06/98

     

59

 

SA

 

06/98 – 03/00

     

59

 

AD

 

03/00 – 10/00

active

   

60

F

D

3a

05/97 – 06/98

     

60

 

SA

 

06/98 – 03/00

     

60

 

AD

 

03/00 – 08/00

dead

accidental

 

61

F

AD

12a

06/97 – 08/99

lost

no signal -c or a

 

62

F

AD

8a

06/97 – 10/00

active

   

63

F

AD

7a

06/99 – 10/00

active

   

64

F

AD

10a

06/99 – 10/00

active

   

65

F

D

4a

05/98 – 06/99

     

65

 

SA

 

06/99 – 03/00

     

65

 

AD

 

03/00 – 08/00

lost

drop collar

 

66

F

SA

4a

06/99 – 10/00

active

   

67

M

SA

3a

06/99 – 10/99

lost

no signal – b

06/00

68

M

SA

5a

08/00 – 10/00

active

   

69

F

SA

3a

09/00 – 10/00

active

   

70

F

SA

3a

09/00 – 10/00

active

   

1 D = dependent, SA = subadult, AD = adult (>5 years old)
2 certainty code from tooth analysis: a = +/- 0 years, b = +/- 1-2 years, c = +/- 2-3 years
3 (a) High probability that disappearance was related to death, (b) High probability that disappearance was unrelated to death, (c) No indication of which of the above 2 choices is more likely
4 sightings of animals who’s collar has either failed or dropped off
POPULATION DEMOGRAPHICS
Observations from the research team as well as records from Banff National Park and Alberta Natural Resources Service established a minimum unduplicated count of females with cubs for the year (Table 3). Over time, a minimum count of sows with cubs (Table 4) can be established and used as a trend indicator (Knight et al. 1995).
Table 3. Unduplicated grizzly bear females with cubs of the year in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 – 2000.

Family

Identification

Most Cubs Observed

Location

# of

Sightings

A – 1993

1

Bryant Creek

2

B – 1993

2

Fatigue Creek

1

C – 1993

2

Moraine Lake

1

D – 1993

2

Cascade River

1

E – 1993

2

Elbow R. / Nahahi Ridge

3

F – 1993

2

Kananaskis Lakes

4

A – 1994

2

Lower Cascade River

1

B – 1994

1

Moose Mtn. / Elbow R.

2

C – 1994

2

Mt. Indefatigable

4

D – 1994

1

Bryant Cr. / Mt. Nestor

2

Bear #28 1994

1

Upper Cascade River

2

Bear #30 1994

3

Baker Lake / Pipestone R.

5

Bear #36 1994

1

Upper Bow River

2

Bear #46 1994

2

Pipestone River

1

Bear #47 1994

2

Kananaskis Lakes

2

A – 1995

2

West Bragg Cr / Powderface

3

B – 1995

2

Skogan Pass / Wasootch

3

C – 1995

2

Upper Spray / Albert R.

3

Bear #17 1995

1

Cascade River

13

Bear #18 1995

3

Bryant Cr. / Assiniboine

10

Bear #26 1995

2

Nakiska / Evans Thomas

6

Bear #31 1995

2

Highwood River

3

Bear #32 1995

3

Forty Mile Cr. / Elk Lake

12

Bear #33 1995

3

Cascade River / Stoney Cr.

14

A – 1996

1

Cascade R. / Grassy Ridge

1

B – 1996

3

Mid Spray River

1

Bear #24 1996

2

Highwood Pass

25

Bear #36 1996

2

Upper Bow River

8

Bear #37 1996

2

Elbow / Sheep Rivers

3

A – 1997

2

Wind Valley

2

B – 1997

3

Elbow Lakes

2

Family

Identification

Most Cubs Observed

Location

# of

Sightings

A – 1998

1

West Bragg Creek

2

B – 1998

2

Palliser Range

2

C – 1998

1

Pipestone River

1

Bear # 33 1998

2

Cascade River

4

Bear # 41 1998

1

Simpson River

4

Bear # 47 1998

2

Kananaskis Lakes

3

Bear # 55 1998

1

Cascade River

9

Bear # 57 1998

2

Plateau Mtn

6

Bear # 18 1999

1

Bryant Creek

4

Bear # 26 1999

2

Nakiska

1

Bear # 36 1999

2

Upper Bow R

5

Bear # 56 2000

1

Lake Louise

10

Bear # 37 2000

2

Elbow River

3

A – 2000

2

Elpoca Cr.

2

Table 4. Number of unduplicated females with cubs of the year (COY), and 6 year running averages in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 – 2000.
6 year running averages

6 year running averages

F w/COY

# cubs

Litter size

1993

6

11

1.8

 

 

 

1994

9

15

1.6

 

 

 

1995

9

20

2.2

 

 

 

1996

5

10

2.0

 

 

 

1997

2

5

2.5

 

 

 

1998

8

12

1.5

6.5

12.2

1.9

1999

3

5

1.6

6.0

11.2

1.9

2000

3

5

1.6

5.0

9.5

1.9

Reproductive success of radio collared females was determined through year to year visual observations between 1994 and 2000 (Table 5). Year to year cub survivorship can be tracked by referring to the table and comparing the number of cubs observed in a given year to the previous years observations. Reproductive data from collared females is being be used to construct an estimate of whether the sample population is increasing or decreasing.
Table 5. Reproductive status of known female grizzly bears in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 2000.

Female

Location

Age at first

 

 

 

Cubs In

 

 

 

Age of First

Interbirth

#

 

capture

94

95

96

97

98

99

2000

Parturition

Interval

17

Cascade River

10

0

1yoy

1

off air

2yoy

2

   

3

18

Bryant Creek

6

0

3yoy

2

2

2*

1yoy

1

7

4

24

Highwood Pass

5

0

0

2yoy

2

2*

0

0

7

5+

26

Nakisa

18

2*

2yoy

1

0

0

2yoy/died

0

 

4

27

Cascade River

2

0

0/off air

2yoy

2

 

6

 

28

Cascade River

22

1yoy

0

0/died

           

30

Lake Louise

9

3yoy

3

3

3

3*

0

0

 

7+

31

Highwood River

7

0

2yoy

off air

       

8

 

32

Cascade River

13

1*

3yoy

3

3*

off air

       

33

Cascade River

19

2*

3yoy

2

2*

2yoy

2

2

 

3

35

Evan Thomas

4

 

0

0

0/died

         

36

Upper Bow River

8

1yoy

0

2yoy

1

0

2yoy

2

 

3

37

Sheep River

10

1*

0

2yoy

1

0

0

2yoy

 

4

39

Kananaskis River

3

 

0

0/off air

           

40

Spray River

15

 

0

0

0

0

0

0/died

   

41

Brewster Creek

12

 

0

0

0

1yoy

1

1

   

46

Pipestone Creek

10

2yoy

2

2

2

2

2*

0

 

7+

47

Kananaskis Lakes

7

2yoy

2

2

2*

2yoy

2

 

7

4

48

Kananaskis Lakes

2

   

0

0/off air

         

55

Cascade River

6

     

0

1yoy

1/off air

1

7

 

56

Lake Louise

3

     

0

0

0

1yoy>0

6

 

57

Cateract Creek

5

     

0

2yoy

2

2

6

 

59

Lake Louise

3

     

0

0

0

0

7+

 

60

Lake Louise

3

     

0

0

0

0/died

   

61

Spray River

12

     

0

0

0/died ?

     

62

Cascade River

8

     

0

0

0

0

   

63

Yoho R.

7

         

0

0

   

64

Healy Creek

10

         

0

0

   

65

Pipestone River

4

       

0

0

0/off air

7+

 

66

Cascade River

4

         

0

0

6+

 

69

Wind Valley

4

           

0

   

70

Wind Valley

4

           

0

   
                   

* denotes cubs dispersed
There were 3 known mortalities within the study area in 2000 (Table 6). Adult female #40 died of natural causes in June after falling off a cliff. Adult female #60 was hit and killed by a train near Lake Louise in August. An unmarked subadult male was shot in self defense in Kananaskis Country in September.
Table 6. Summary of grizzly bear mortalities in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 – 2000.

Bear

Identification

Date

Location

Sex

Age

Kill Type

AFWS #21055a

08/19/93

West Spray-408b

M

3

PWc

Research #19

05/13/94

Kananaskis-648

M

6

AC

Research #22

05/28/94

Albert R.-B.C.

M

14

LH

AFWS #25161

09/29/94

Fortress Mt-408

M

subadult

IL

Research #12

10/04/94

Simpson R.-B.C.

M

13

SD

Research #21

07/26/95

Elkford B.C.

M

4

PW

AFWS #25722

08/20/95

Sarcee Reserve

M

unkn

TI

investigate

fall/95

3 Point Cr.-406

?

unkn

?

BNP L952104

09/25/95

Lake Louise

F&yly

adult

PW

C – 1995

10/12/95

Albert River

F

adult

PW

AFWS #34990

06/04/96

Morley

M

adult

TI

Research #44

08/23/96

Stoney Reserve

M

5

TI

Research #28

08/24/96

Cascade River

F

24

NA

Research #23

08/08/96

James River

M

5

PW

Research #43

10/10/96

Grease Creek

M

5

IL

BNP97-1567

fall 1996

Spray Lake

?

subadult

?

Research #35

09/20/97

Evan Thomas Cr.

F

5

TI

Research #58

09/23/97

James River

M

9

PW

BNP 1998

06/05/98

Bryant Cr.

?

subadult

NA

AFWS #36480

07/18/98

Kananaskis R

F

adult

AC

Research #53

10/20/98

Trap Cr.

M

4

IL

AFWS #

09/??/98

Pekisko Cr.

M

adult

PW

AFWS # 17883

09/??/99

Kananaskis R

M

subadult

AC

Research # 26

09/21/99

Nakiska

F

23

SD

AFWS # 42771

10/28/99

Highwood R

F

subadult

TI

Research # 40

06/03/00

Spray R

F

20

NA

Research # 60

08/17/00

Lake Louise

F

6

AC

AFWS # 47901

09/25/00

Elbow R

M

2

SD

a Registration or file number
b Wildlife Management Unit
c PW=problem wildlife, AC=accidental, LH=legal hunter, SD=self defense, NA=natural, TI=treaty Indian, IL=Illegal
There was one grizzly bear translocation out of the study area in 2000. An adult female bear was removed to the Calgary Zoo after two separate aggressive encounters near Canmore. Since 1993, there have been 7 translocations from the Bow River Watershed (Table 7).
Table 7. Summary of grizzly bear translocations in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 – 2000.
Translocation
From To

Translocation

From To

AFWS #407801a

09/04/93

Canmore-410b Owl Crk-339

M

Subadult

Research #23

10/21/94

Sundre-318 Mitsue-350

M

3

B.C. GF75

09/26/95

Lake Louise Kinbasket L

F

9 & 1yly

Research #50

06/17/96

Canmore-410 Highwood-404

M

4

Research #16

07/05/96

Banff Calgary Zoo

M

8

AFWS

07/29/97

PLPP-648 White Goat-738

M

Subadult

AFWS

09/15/00

Nakiska-408 Calgary Zoo

F

18

aRegistration or file number
bWildlife Management Unit
The 34 grizzly bear deaths and removals in the Bow River Watershed between 1994 – 2000 are from a number of causes (Table 8). No one factor stands out. The diversity of mortality and removal causes means that it will continue to be challenging to maintain acceptable mortality / removal rates for subadult and adult female bears.
SCHEDULED CONCLUSION
The target of 8 years of data collection on about 25 grizzly bears per year will be met at the end of the field season in 2001. We appear to have sufficient data to complete all planned demographic and habitat analyses. An integrated final report will be published about one year after completion of field work in November 2001.
Table 8. Summary of known grizzly bear mortalities and removals by jurisdiction and activity in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993-2000.

 

Problem Wildlife

Illegal

Treaty Indian

Accident

Self D.

Natural

Legal H.

Unknown

Total

 

Agriculture

Public Safety

Garbage Mgmt.

 

Hunting

Garbage Mgmt.

 

(while hunting)

 

 

(suspect illegal)

 

Alberta

3

2

3

3

3

2

3

2

 

 

1

22

B.C.

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

4

N.P.

 

3

 

 

 

 

1

 

3

 

1

8

Total

3

6

4

3

3

2

4

3

3

1

2

34

LITERATURE CITED
Gibeau, M. and S. Herrero. 1995. Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project: 1994 Progress Report. University of Calgary, AB. 26 pp.
Knight, R.R., B.M. Blanchard, and L.L. Eberhardt. 1995. Appraising status of the Yellowstone grizzly bear population by counting females with cubs-of-the-year. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 23:245-248.
Komex Intl. 1995. Atlas of the Central Rockies Ecosystem. Komex Intl., Calgary, AB.

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