1998 Annual Report


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Gibeau, Michael L. and Stephen Herrero. 1999. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project:
A progress report for 1998. Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
Prepared for the Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Steering Committee
This paper contains preliminary results of an on-going study and should not be cited without permission from the authors.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Project Background
Project Origins
Project Organization and Budget
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
STUDY AREA
METHODS
RESULTS
Population Studies
Capture
Telemetry Data Set
Population Demographics
Home Range
LITERATURE CITED
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Grizzly bear capture data in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1998.
Table 2. Status of all grizzly bears captured in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, as of December 1998.
Table 3. Unduplicated grizzly bear females with cubs of the year in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 through 1998.
Table 4. Reproductive status of known female grizzly bears in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1994 – 1998.
Table 5. Summary of grizzly bear translocations in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 through 1998.
Table 6. Summary of grizzly bear mortalities in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 through 1998.
Table 7. Summary of days monitored and fate of radio collared grizzly bears in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993-1998.
Table 8. Multi-annual home range sizes (square kilometers) of radio collared grizzly bears in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1994-1998.
Figures 1 and 2 not included in this version
INTRODUCTION
Project Background
Several hundred years ago grizzly bears lived throughout much of what is now the province of Alberta. Today a historically estimated population of approximately 6000 individuals (Herrero unpublished data), has decreased to an estimated 600 grizzly bears on provincial land and another 200 within federal national parks (Nagy and Gunson 1990). Grizzly bears have declined in Alberta because of mortality in excess of recruitment and because people have occupied and developed land which once supported the bears and less industrialized people.
Grizzly bears are recognized in Alberta as one of the principle species that indicates wilderness—large scale landscapes in a relatively natural state, the raw material out of which our culture was, and is still being created. Now, however, the last remaining unprotected wildland areas in Alberta are being modified by industrial and recreational activity. Because Albertans value nature and wildlife in addition to economic development, there is an urgent need to understand the impacts of human-caused mortality and land use on grizzly bears, and to target mortality rates and habitat protection and management that will allow for grizzly bear persistence. This direction is supported by the Grizzly Bear Management Plan of Alberta which states that the provincial population will be increased to 1000 (Nagy and Gunson 1990). It is also consistent with National Park management objectives for ecological integrity as set by the National Parks Act and Policy (1988).
On the Eastern Slopes in Alberta grizzly bears occur at relatively low population densities, only one bear for each 60-100 km2. Male grizzlies have lifetime home ranges of approximately 1000-2000 km 2 (Russell et al. 1979, Carr 1989). Females do not begin breeding until they are 4-7 years old and then they produce significantly less than one cub per year. Because of these biological characteristics grizzly bears recover slowly if at all from population declines, and only if negative mortality factors have been brought under control (Mattson et al. 1996). These and other biological characteristics are part of the reason why human activities can have such a significant impact on grizzly bears.
Alberta has an expanding economy based significantly on the development of natural resources such as agriculture, oil and gas, forestry, and nature-based tourism. Individual grizzly bears, owing to their large home ranges, may come into contact with all of these activities. Research based in Yoho and Kootenay national parks showed that individual grizzly bears may enter four different management jurisdictions in a year (Raine and Riddell 1991). Whether land is managed as parks, commercial forests, or privately, management practices must respond to the grizzlies needs if these bears are to survive. There is an urgent need for scientific data on grizzly bears to help land managers better understand the affects of human activities on grizzly bears.
Project Origins
The Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project (ESGBP) formally began in May 1994. Neither the project, nor its membership, were formally designated by any group or agency. The Project and its members evolved from a number of different origins. An understanding of these helps in defining the nature of the Project.
First, were changes in legislation and policy at both the Federal and the Provincial levels. In 1988 the Government of Canada amended the National Parks Act. Changes included a recognition that ecological integrity was the primary objective of national park management. In this context, the grizzly bear is recognized as one of the most sensitive ecosystem elements, meaning they are difficult to maintain in landscapes that have a lot of human activities. Where grizzly bears exist, they are an indicator of ecological integrity. Parks Canada thus had new reason to be concerned about the status of grizzly bears, especially in national parks such as Banff which is part of one of the most developed landscapes where grizzly bears still survive. This legislative change was reflected in a re-written Parks Canada policy document that recognized the need for multi-agency approaches to parks management. Again, the grizzly bear with its wide-ranging movements across jurisdictional borders, became a focal species in trying to address multi-agency dimensions of parks management.
In 1992 the Federal government enacted the Canadain Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) which broadened the scope of traditional environmental assessment to consider the cumulative effects of developments at a landscape scale. The following year (1993) the Alberta Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) passed which also included a provision for assessing the cumulative impacts of development proposals. The need to consider cumulative effects in evaluating development proposals has been highlighted in the review of several major project proposals for the Eastern Slopes of Alberta: the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB)(now the Energy and Utilities Board – EUB) highlighted the need for cumulative effects assessment (CEA) in its review of AMOCO’s proposal to drill an exploratory well in the Whaleback region (ERCB 1994); the Natural Resources Conservation Board (NRCB) which was established to function similarly to the ERCB, but with regard to large, proposed recreational developments, indicated the need for CEA in its review of the Three Sisters Resort Proposal and the Westcastle Resort Proposal (NRCB 1993a, 1993b). In all these reviews grizzly bears, because of their regional movements and ecological relationships, and because of their sensitivity to development, became a focal species for cumulative effects assessment.
The second major element in the origin of the ESGBP was new information regarding the status of grizzly bears in the Canadian Rocky Mountains and elsewhere in Alberta. In 1990 the province of Alberta released its grizzly bear management plan (Nagy and Gunson 1990). This document clearly showed not only historic declines of grizzly bears in the province, but major over hunting, especially during 1980-1988. This launched the province into a limited entry system for managing
hunting. It revealed how subject grizzly bear populations are to excessive mortality, not just from hunting but from all sources. This documented excessive mortality, combined with rapid expansion in resource harvesting activities in the province, was important in raising Alberta Fish and Wildlife’s concern for grizzly bears.
In the national parks new information also clearly documented the need for interagency management of grizzly bears. Research had shown that grizzly bears in the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks moved freely and extensively across park borders and that mortality outside of park borders was a significant issue (Russell et al. 1979, Raine and Riddell 1991). Herrero (1995) showed that Canadian National Park grizzly bear populations by themselves were probably all too small for a high probability of long term persistence, and therefore integrated management with surrounding provincial or territorial lands would be required. Within the boundaries of Banff , Yoho and Kootenay National Parks research by Gibeau (In press) showed that habitat effectiveness was significantly compromised by development. More recent research documents that grizzly bear populations in Banff Park have suffered exceptionally high mortality for a national park (Gibeau et al. 1996).
The third factor that led to formation of the ESGBP was growing awareness of the discipline of conservation biology. This is a discipline with the objective of using scientific information to help maintain biological diversity. Many of the principles of conservation biology focus on the design of systems of environmental reserves along ecological boundaries that most often cross jurisdictional divisions (Noss and Cooperrider 1994). Within conservation biology large-bodied mammalian carnivores such as the grizzly bear are often used as indicator and umbrella species (see August 1996 issue of the journal Conservation Biology). By maintaining the large carnivores we will also maintain a significant degree of terrestrial regional ecological integrity.
The ESGBP was a product of the foregoing series of societal level influences plus many others that have not been mentioned. Like most projects this one responded to a need perceived by many different individuals and institutions, sometimes for different reasons. By joining in a cooperative endeavor and pooling resources a major project was launched.
Project Organization and Budget
The ESBGP is an informal association of participants organized into a steering committee whose objectives are to: 1) review and suggest strategic direction for research and encourage a research-based understanding of grizzly bear biology and ecology in selected portions of the Eastern Slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, 2) help focus research efforts on the cumulative effects of regional land use and mortality factors on grizzly bears, 3) provide a forum for various stakeholders to discuss land use planning issues as they relate to grizzly bears, 4) help secure funding and other forms of agency support, 5) coordinate public outreach initiatives and 6) contribute to the conservation of grizzly bear populations and their habitat in the Eastern Slopes.
All steering committee participants contribute either money, time or both toward the objectives. The group, meets about 4 times a year. It has a chair who was elected from a core organizing group. Membership currently consists of a selection of representatives from various groups that have either jurisdiction, resource harvest activities or potential, or other interests regarding occupied grizzly bear habitat in the Eastern Slopes of Alberta’s Rocky Mountains. The principal participants are Parks Canada, the Province of Alberta (Energy and Utilities Board, Fish and Wildlife Division, Lands and Forest Service, and Kananaskis Country), the University of Calgary, conservation groups, the oil and gas industry, the forest products industry, the land development industry and the cattle industry. There are numerous minor supporters as well, but most do not have direct representation on the Steering Committee.
During meetings research findings and strategic directions are discussed along with budget needs to further the committees objectives. The group serves as a focal point for fund raising activities to support the Project. Significant development proposals and activities are discussed in light of their potential cumulative effects regarding grizzly bears and their habitat.
During the period of 1994-1997 the ESGBP was been successful in raising over $1,450,000 to support the research. Sources for this funding have been: Parks Canada 46%, oil and gas industry 34%, Alberta Government 11%, other research grants 4%, forest industry 3%, conservation groups 1%, and land development industry (Herrero and Herrero 1996). Contributions to this project are tax deductible because they go to support independent research by the University of Calgary.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
A very successful fifth field season would not have been possible without the dedication of field biologists J. Wittingham, C. Mamo, C. Mueller, J. Saher, S. Stevens, S. Stotyn, and M. Urquhart. Their efforts were augmented through the largely volunteer support of C. Campbell and M. Lacroix. Assistance in coordination of field staff was provided by A. Dibb, S. Donelon and T. Hurd. Trapping was conducted by R. Leblanc, and C. Mamo. Veterinary care was provided by Dr. Todd Shury. Several Alberta Fish and Wildlife Officers, Banff National Park Wardens and Peter Lougheed Park Rangers all provided invaluable safety backup and field assistance during trapping. The Banff Park Warden Service and Kananaskis Country Park Rangers provided logistical support through all stages of monitoring. Exemplary flying skills were provided by Alpine Helicopters of Canmore and fixed wing pilot M. Dupuis of Wildlife Observation Air Services.
The Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Steering Committee helped implement and guided this research. All steering committee participants contribute either money, time or both toward the objectives. Through the Steering Committee, governments, industry, business and conservation groups work together to support this project. The supporters include:
Alberta Conservation Assoc.
Spray Lakes Sawmills
Alberta Natural Resources Service
Alberta Lands and Forest Service
Canadian Pacific Foundation
Friends of Kananaskis Country
Alberta Cattle Commission
Alberta Energy Utilities Board
Alpine Helicopters
AMOCO Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd.
Calgary Zoological Society
Canadian Assoc. of Petroleum Producers
Bow Valley Naturalists
Canadian Parks & Wilderness Soc.
Canmore Collegiate High School
Eagle Terrace Developments
Human Resources Canada
Husky Oil
Parks Canada, BNP & AB Region
Shell Canada Ltd.
Springbank Middle School
Sking Louise Ltd.
Three Sisters Resorts Inc.
University Of Calgary
World Wildlife Fund Canada
Warner Guiding and Outfitting Ltd.
Wilderness Medical Society
Rigel Energy
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Prior to the ESGBP, little research has focused on the effects of non-motorized tourism oriented activities on bears. One of our principle research questions is how do grizzly bear’s spatial and temporal use patterns differ in areas of high human presence compared to areas with low human presence in a landscape, some of which is dominated by tourism activities? Our situation is unique in that few other grizzly bear study areas in North America have both a high volume transcontentinal highway and railway bisecting occupied grizzly bear habitat along with intensive tourism. Analysis has never been done on the effects of such levels of human presence on grizzly bears. One important question is the extent to which the Bow River Valley continues to function as a major movement corridor for bears providing connectivity between habitats. Unregulated human access and development within bear habitat can contribute to increased bear mortality and affect grizzly bear use of existing habitat.
The overall goal of this research is to understand how developments and human-induced mortality impact grizzly bears. Specific research objectives include:
1. Determine the basic demographic parameters for the grizzly bear population within the study area.
2. Detect spatial and temporal activity patterns of bears given various levels of human influences.
3. Determine how the distribution of humans affects a bear’s ability to use the landscape.
4. Determine if population connectivity is being impeded by major transportation corridors.
5. Determine what adjustments to human activities would give bears better access to resources.
6. Suggest management alternatives for integrating land uses compatible with bear habitat needs for the study area.
STUDY AREA
The area of interest remains unchanged from year 1 with the Bow River Watershed, from its headwaters to approximately where it meets the prairies, as the core study area. The Bow River drainage system is approximately 11,400 km2. The greater study area defined by the movement of radio-collared bears is about 22,000 km2 or roughly twice the size of the core study area.
METHODS
Methods for both the capture and monitoring of bears remain unchanged from the detailed description found in the year 1 progress report (Gibeau and Herrero 1995). Approximately 25 grizzly bears per year have active radio-collars. These bears are monitored from air and ground wherever they go and our budget permits. Aerial monitoring gives infrequent, but relatively unbiased data regarding location. This facilitates understanding of home range, movements and habitat use. Ground-based research allows intensive monitoring of grizzly bear activities related to development features such as towns, highways, campgrounds and trails. Mortality is monitored using both aerial and ground-based telemetry. The radio-telemetry monitoring area includes lands under several different jurisdictions. In the British Columbia portion of these lands, where some of our radio-collared grizzly bears are found, there is a Western Slopes Bear Research Project (Woods pers. comm.) which provides complementary data and will allow a broader ecosystem versus provincial boundary-based understanding of grizzly bears in what has been called the Central Rockies Ecosystem (Komex International 1995).
RESULTS
Population Studies
Capture
In 1998 emphasis was placed on capturing dispersing subadult bears (Table 1).
Table 1. Grizzly bear capture data in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1998.

ID

Sex

Age Estimate

Weight (kg)

Area

Comments

45

M

4a

86

Lake Louise

cub of Bear #46

46

F

14a

91

Lake Louise

56

F

4a

Lake Louise

cub of Bear #30

59

F

4a

Lake Louise

cub of Bear #30

60

F

4a

74

Lake Louise

cub of Bear #30

65

F

4a

61

Lake Louise

cub of Bear #46

* certainty code a= +/- 0 years, b= +/- 1-2 years, c= +/- 2-3 years
Since the Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project began in May of 1994, we have captured 25 male and 29 female grizzly bears. Currently, 25 bears are radio-instrumented including 6 males and 19 females (Table 2). Of the remainder, 11 bears have died, 15 have dropped collars or stopped transmitting, 1 was removed from the system, and 2 were never collared initially.
Table 2. Status of all grizzly bears captured in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, as of December 1998.

ID

Sex

Age at 1st capture

Date 1st captured

Current status

No of radio

relocations

10

M

13 a*

05/07/94

unknown- drop collar 06/98

333

11

M

4 b

05/17/94

unknown – drop collar 07/97

48

12

M

13 b

05/19/94

dead – 10/04/94

14

13

M

5 a

05/25/94

active

485

14

M

9 a

05/29/94

unknown- no signal 05/97

49

15

M

6 a

05/20/94

active

336

16

M

5 a

08/16/93

removed to zoo 07/05/96

168

17

F

10 a

06/02/94

unknown – drop collar 07/96

103

18

F

6 a

05/30/94

active

140

19

M

6 b

05/13/94

dead – 05/14/94

1

20

M

11 a

05/14/94

unknown – drop collar 08/94

8

21

M

3 a

05/21/94

dead – 07/26/95

3

22

M

14 a

05/21/94

dead – 05/28/94

2

23

M

3 a

05/28/94

dead – 08/08/96

75

24

F

5 a

05/31/94

active

503

25

M

6 a

05/31/94

unknown – drop collar 09/94

15

26

F

18 a

06/08/94

active

440

27

F

2 a

06/13/94

unknown – no signal 04/96

35

28

F

22 a

06/08/94

dead – 08/24/96

71

29

M

2 a

06/13/94

unknown – never collared

1

30

F

9 a

09/28/94

active

882

31

F

7 c

06/25/94

unknown – drop collar 05/96

120

32

F

13 b

06/04/94

unknown – drop collar 10/97

156

33

F

19 a

06/14/94

active

268

34

M

6a

05/17/95

unknown – no signal 05/97

54

35

F

4a

05/17/96

dead – 09/20/97

187

36

F

8a

06/23/93

active

242

37

F

10 a

06/27/94

active

244

38

M

1 a

06/27/94

unknown – never collared

8

39

F

3a

05/10/95

unknown – no signal 08/96

105

40

F

15c

05/15/95

active

334

ID

Sex

Age at 1st capture

Date 1st captured

Current status

No of radio

relocations

41

F

12a

05/28/95

active

74

42

M

7a

05/30/95

active

61

43

M

5a

05/24/96

dead – 10/10/96

11

44

M

4a

06/13/95

dead – 08/23/96

27

45

M

1a

06/15/95

active – with #46

104

46

F

11a

06/15/95

active

317

47

F

9a

06/02/96

active

191

48

F

2a

06/02/96

unknown – no signal 09/97

14

49

M

2a

06/02/96

unknown – no signal 06/98

19

50

M

4a

06/17/96

unknown – no signal 06/96

2

51

M

8a

05/23/97

unknown – drop collar 06/98

31

52

M

7b

05/16/97

active

30

53

M

3a

05/15/97

dead – 10/20/98

38

54

M

15a

06/03/97

active

49

55

F

6a

06/07/97

active

63

56

F

3a

05/28/97

active

134

57

F

5a

05/17/97

active

52

58

M

9a

06/08/97

dead – 09/23/97

5

59

F

3a

05/28/97

active

99

60

F

3a

05/28/97

active

143

61

F

12a

06/11/97

active

260

62

F

8a

06/12/97

active

124

65

F

4a

05/15/98

active – with 46

104

* certainty code a= +/- 0 years, b= +/- 1-2 years, c= +/- 2-3 years
Telemetry Data Set
Aerial and ground monitoring from the mid-March until the first week of December produced 2066 point locations for the 1998 field season. Of these 505 (24%) were from the air and 1561 (76%) from ground monitoring. Aerial locations were biased toward early morning hours. Ground locations were also biased towards where observers could travel easily.
Since 1994 the Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project has collected 7382 telemerty relocations. Of these 2041 (28%) were from the air and 5335 (72%) from ground monitoring. Eight hundred and nineteen aerial locations were visual observations. Sightability was higher from the air (40%) than from the ground (9%). Table 2 outlines the number of telemetry points for each individual from project initiation to December 1998.
Population Demographics
Observations from the research team as well as records from Banff National Park, Kananaskis Country Rangers and Alberta Fish and Wildlife Services established a minimum unduplicated count of females with cubs for the years 1993 – 1998 (Table 3). Over time, a minimum count of sows with cubs can be established and used as a trend indicator (Knight et al. 1995).
Table 3. Unduplicated grizzly bear females with cubs of the year in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 through 1998.

Family

Identification

Most Cubs Observed

Location

# of

Sightings

A – 1993

1

Bryant Creek

2

B – 1993

2

Fatigue Creek

1

C – 1993

2

Moraine Lake

1

D – 1993

2

Cascade River

1

E – 1993

2

Elbow R. / Nahahi Ridge

3

F – 1993

2

Kananaskis Lakes

4

A – 1994

2

Lower Cascade River

1

B – 1994

1

Moose Mtn. / Elbow R.

2

C – 1994

2

Mt. Indefatigable

4

D – 1994

1

Bryant Cr. / Mt. Nestor

2

Bear #28 1994

1

Upper Cascade River

2

Bear #30 1994

3

Baker Lake / Pipestone R.

5

Bear #36 1994

1

Upper Bow River

2

Bear #46 1994

2

Pipestone River

1

Bear #47 1994

2

Kananaskis Lakes

2

A – 1995

2

West Bragg Cr / Powderface

3

B – 1995

2

Skogan Pass / Wasootch

3

C – 1995

2

Upper Spray / Albert R.

3

Bear #17 1995

1

Cascade River

13

Bear #18 1995

3

Bryant Cr. / Assiniboine

10

Bear #26 1995

2

Nakiska / Evans Thomas

6

Bear #31 1995

2

Highwood River

3

Bear #32 1995

3

Forty Mile Cr. / Elk Lake

12

Bear #33 1995

3

Cascade River / Stoney Cr.

14

A – 1996

1

Cascade R. / Grassy Ridge

1

B – 1996

3

Mid Spray River

1

Bear #24 1996

2

Highwood Pass

25

Bear #36 1996

2

Upper Bow River

8

Bear #37 1996

2

Elbow / Sheep Rivers

3

Family

Identification

Most Cubs Observed

Location

# of

Sightings

A – 1997

2

Wind Valley

2

B – 1997

3

Elbow Lakes

2

A – 1998

1

West Bragg Creek

2

B – 1998

2

Palliser Range

2

C – 1998

1

Pipestone River

1

Bear # 33 1998

2

Cascade River

4

Bear # 41 1998

1

Simpson River

4

Bear # 47 1998

2

Kananaskis Lakes

3

Bear # 55 1998

1

Cascade River

9

Bear #57 1998

1

Plateau Mtn

6

Reproductive success of radio collared females was determined through year to year visual observations between 1994 and 1998 (Table 4). Year to year cub survivorship can be tracked by referring to the table and comparing the number of cubs observed in a given year to the previous years observations. Reproductive data from collared females will eventually be used to construct an estimate of whether the sample population is increasing or decreasing.
There were no grizzly bear translocations out of the study area in 1998. Since 1993, there have been 6 translocations from the Bow River Watershed (Table 5).
Table 4. Reproductive status of known female grizzly bears in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1994 – 1998.

Bear

Location

Age in

Cubs In

Age of First

Interbreeding

#

98

94

95

96

97

98

99

2000

Parturition

Interval

17

Cascade River

13+

0

1

1

off air

18

Bryant Creek

10

0

3

2

2

2*

7

4

24

Highwood Pass

9

0

0

2

2

2*

7

3

26

Nakisa

22

2*

2

1

0

0

27

Cascade River

5+

0

0/off air

28

Cascade River

24+

1

0

0/died

30

Lake Louise

13

3

3

3

3

3*

5

31

Highwood River

9+

0

2

off air

32

Cascade River

17

1*

3

3

3*

3

33

Cascade River

23

2*

3

2

2*

2

3

35

Evan Thomas

5+

0

0

0/died

36

Upper Bow River

13

1

0

2

1

0

37

Sheep River

14

1*

0

2

1

0

39

Kananaskis River

4+

0

0/off air

40

Spray River

18

0

0

0

0

41

Brewster Creek

15

0

0

0

1

46

Pipestone Creek

14

2

2

2

2

2*

6

47

Kananaskis Lakes

11

2

2

2

2*

2

7

4

48

Kananaskis Lakes

4

0

0/off air

55

Cascade River

7

0

1

7

56

Lake Louise

4

0

0

57

Cateract Creek

6

0

2

6

59

Lake Louise

4

0

0

60

Lake Louise

4

0

0

61

Spray River

13

0

0

62

Cascade River

9

0

0

65

Pipestone River

4

0

0

# known females with c.o.y.

5\12

6\14

3\15

0\15

5\15

* cubs dispersed

cub survival

coy

7\9

11\14

4\6

0\0

?\8

+ age at time of death or contact lost

y1y

7\7

7\9

2\4

0\0

y2y

7\7

7\7

0\0

y3y

5\5

0\0

y4y

2\2

37 cubs observed between 1994 – 1998 to 19 females = 1.9 cubs/sow.
There were 4 known mortalities within the study area in 1998 (Table 6). An adult female was killed by a vehicle on Highway 40, a subadult was killed in aggressive encounter with Bear #10, radio collared study bear #53 was shot and left, and an old adult male was destroyed by Alberta Fish and Wildlife Services after a cattle depredation.
Table 5. Summary of grizzly bear translocations in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 through 1998.

Bear
Identification
Date Translocation

Sex

Age

From To
AFWS #407801a 09/04/93 Canmore-410b Owl Crk-339

M

Subadult

Research #23 10/21/94 Sundre-318 Mitsue-350

M

3

B.C. GF75 09/26/95 Lake Louise Kinbasket L

F

9 & 1yly

Research #50 06/17/96 Canmore-410 Highwood-404

M

4

Research #16 07/05/96 Banff Calgary Zoo

M

8

AFWS# 0729/97 PLPP-648 Nordegg – 428

M

Subadult

a Occurance number
b Wildlife Management Unit
Table 6. Summary of grizzly bear mortalities in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993 through 1998.

Bear
Identification
Date

Location

Sex

Age

Kill Type

AFWS #21055a 08/19/93

West Spray-408b

M

3

PWc

Research #19 05/13/94

Kananaskis-648

M

6

AC

Research #22 05/28/94

Albert R.-B.C.

M

14

LH

AFWS #25161 09/29/94

Fortress Mt-408

M

subadult

IL

Research #12 10/04/94

Simpson R.-B.C.

M

13

SD

Research #21 07/26/95

Elkford B.C.

M

4

PW

AFWS #25722 08/20/95

Sarcee Reserve

M

unkn

TI

investigate fall/95

3 Point Cr.-406

?

unkn

IL

BNP L952104 09/25/95

Lake Louise

F

adult

PW

BNP L952104 09/25/95

Lake Louise

F

yly

PW

C – 1995 10/12/95

Albert River

F

adult

PW

AFWS #34990 06/04/96

Morley

M

adult

TI

Research #44 08/23/96

Stoney Reserve

M

5

TI

Research #28 08/24/96

Cascade River

F

24

NA

Research #23 08/08/96

James River

M

5

PW

Research #43 10/10/96

Grease Creek

M

5

IL

BNP97-1567 fall 1996

Spray Lake

?

subadult

?

Research #35 09/20/97

Evan Thomas Cr.

F

5

TI

Research #58 09/23/97

James River

M

9

PW

BNP98- 06/05/98

Bryant Cr.

?

subadult

NA

AFWS # 07/18/98

Kananaskis R

F

adult

AC

Research #53 10/20/98

Trap Cr.

M

4

IL

AFWS # 09/??/98

Pekisko Cr.

M

adult

PW

a Registration or file number
b Wildlife Management Unit
c PW=problem wildlife, AC=accidental, LH=legal hunter, SD=self defense, NA=natural, TI=treaty Indian, IL=Illegal
Phase Two of the ESGBP will focus on monitoring trends in the grizzly bear population through landscape scale data collection of demographic parameters such as reproduction and survival rates. The number of days monitored and fate of each radio collared bear are summarized in Table 7.
Table 7. Summary of days monitored and fate of radio collared grizzly bears in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1993-1998.

Adult Male

Subadult Male

Adult Female

Subadult Female

Bear #

D*

C*

A*

Bear #

D

C

A

Bear #

D

C

A

Bear #

D

C

A

1993

16

138

36

193

Subtotal

138

0

0

0

0

193

0

0

0

Total

0

138

193

0

1994

16

365

21

225

28

207

24

215

12

135

23

218

17

213

19

1

11

229

31

190

22

7

13

221

32

211

25

93

36

365

20

78

18

216

14

217

26

207

10

239

30

95

15

226

33

201

37

188

Subtotal

508

627

226

443

229

221

207

614

1272

0

0

215

Total

1361

893

2093

215

1995

16

365

21

207

28

365

27

214

14

365

23

365

17

365

39

236

10

365

44

202

31

365

34

229

11

365

32

365

13

365

36

365

15

365

18

365

42

216

24

365

26

365

30

365

33

365

37

365

40

231

41

218

46

200

Subtotal

365

959

946

774

365

0

365

1095

3204

0

450

0

Total

2270

1139

4664

450

Adult Male

Subadult Male

Adult Female

Subadult Female

Bear #

D*

C*

A*

Bear #

D

C

A

Bear #

D

C

A

Bear #

D

C

A

1996

16

186

23

220

28

236

35

229

11

365

44

235

17

181

27

90

14

365

43

140

31

120

39

212

10

365

50

0

32

365

34

365

36

365

13

365

18

365

15

365

24

365

42

365

26

365

30

365

33

365

37

365

40

365

41

365

46

365

47

213

Subtotal

551

1095

1095

595

0

0

236

666

3863

229

302

0

Total

2741

595

4765

531

1997

11

181

53

231

32

273

35

263

58

108

49

214

36

365

48

92

14

120

18

365

57

229

10

365

24

365

34

120

26

365

51

223

30

365

13

365

33

365

15

365

37

365

42

365

40

365

52

231

41

365

54

212

46

365

47

365

55

208

61

204

62

203

Subtotal

289

828

1538

231

214

0

0

273

4630

355

0

229

Total

2655

445

4903

584

Adult Male

Subadult Male

Adult Female

Subadult Female

Bear #

D*

C*

A*

Bear #

D

C

A

Bear #

D

C

A

Bear #

D

C

A

1998

10

151

53

293

36

365

57

365

51

151

49

151

18

365

13

365

24

365

15

365

26

365

42

365

30

365

52

365

33

365

54

365

37

365

40

365

41

365

42

365

47

365

55

365

56

214

59

214

60

214

61

365

62

365

Subtotal

0

302

1825

293

151

0

0

0

5752

0

0

365

Total

2127

444

5752

365

* Eventual fate of bear as of December 1998. D=dead; C=censored (no longer being monitored); A=active.
Home Range
Minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed kernel home ranges were calculated for all bears with multi-annual telemetry locations (Table 8). The average 99% MCP home range from a sample of 14 males was 1172 km2 ( range = 339 – 2910 km2). The average 99% MCP home range from a sample of 21 females was 277 km2 ( range = 79 – 884 km2).
Composite maps of MCP home ranges for males (Figure 1) and females (Figure 2) continue to show clear differences between the sexes in interactions across the highly developed portions of the Bow Valley. After five years of data collection, no radio collared adult females have crossed the Trans Canada Highway. Subadult female #56 crossed the Trans Canada Highway within the town of Lake Louise twice (crossing briefly, then returning). Females have periodically crossed other hard surface 2 lane roads such as Highway 93 or 40.
Table 8. Multi-annual home range sizes (square kilometers) of radio collared grizzly bears in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, 1994-1998.

Bear ID

# of Telemetry Locations for Kernel Method a

95%Fixed Kernal w/ lscv b

# of Telemetry Locations for MCP Method c

99% Minimum Convex Polygon

Females

17

54

138

99

111

18

95

311

113

236

24

74

209

406

279

26

102

146

320

497

28

51

250

65

307

30

84

248

429

268

31

31

103

79

32

80

192

126

328

33

104

217

213

218

35

42

115

145

168

36

60

297

207

617

37

88

1041

132

884

39

29

102

125

40

80

199

160

206

41

70

194

70

189

46

67

76

185

321

47

51

155

137

245

55

27

45

180

57

31

49

282

61

34

133

232

62

36

93

150

Males

10

72

580

245

1890

11

35

47

1183

13

79

926

334

1181

14

25

46

997

15

100

1030

269

1025

16

26

121

1120

23

15

35

2910

34

23

43

1460

42

38

52

418

44

23

25

896

51

19

28

1756

52

28

29

637

53

26

36

339

54

29

45

598

a Independent sample of aircraft locations only.
b Least squares cross validation smoothing method. A minimum of 40 locations required.
c One location per day based on both air and ground telemetry.
LITERATURE CITED
Carr, H.D. 1989. Distribution, numbers and mortality of grizzly bears in and around Kananaskis Country, Alberta. Fish and Wildl. Div. Wildl. Manage. Branch Wildl. Res. Series 3. 49 pp.
ERCB. 1994. Decision report D 94-8, Application for an exploratory well, Amoco Canada Petroleum Company Ltd., Whaleback Ridge Area. Energy Resources Conservation Board, Edmonton.
Gibeau, M.L. In press. Grizzly bear habitat effectiveness model for Banff, Yoho and Kootenay National Parks, Canada. Int. Conf. Bear Res. And Manage. 10: 000-000.
Gibeau, M. and S. Herrero. 1995. Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project: 1994 Progress Report. University of Calgary, AB. 26 pp.
Gibeau, M. and S. Herrero. 1996. Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project: 1995 Progress Report. University of Calgary, AB. 46pp.
Gibeau, M., S. Herrero, J. Kansas and B. Benn. 1996. Grizzly bear population and habitat status in Banff National Park: A report to the Banff Bow Valey Task Force. University of Calgary, AB. 62 pp.
Herrero, S. 1995. The Canadian National Parks and grizzly bear ecosystems: The need for interagency management. Int. Conf. Bear. Res. and Manage. 9:7-21.
Herrero, S. and J. Herrero. 1996. Cheviot Mine: A proposed carnivore compensation program. BIOS Environmental Research Ltd., Calgary, AB. 38 pp.
Herrero, S., D. Poll, M. Gibeau, J. Kansas, and B. Worbets. 1998. The eastern slopes grizzly bear project: Origins, organization, and direction. Proceedings; Canadian Council on Ecological Areas, Annual meeting, Calgary, AB. November 1995.
Komex Intl. 1995. Atlas of the Central Rockies Ecosystem. Komex Intl., Calgary, A.B.
Mattson, D.J., S. Herrero, R.G. Wright and C.M. Pease. 1996. Science and management of Rocky Mountain grizzly bears. Consv. Biol. 10(4): 1013-1025.
Nagy, J.A. and J.R. Gunson. 1990. Management plan for grizzly bears in Alberta. Alberta Fish and Wildlife, Edmonton. 164 pp. plus appendicies.
Noss, R. and Cooperrider. 1994. Saving natures legacy: Projecting and restoring biodiversity. Defenders of Wildlife and Island Press, Washington, D.C.
NRCB. 1993a. Decision report. Application to construct a recreational and tourist resort Project in the Town of Canmore, Alberta. Application 9103- Three Sisters Golf Resorts Inc. Natural Resources Conservation Board. Edmonton.
NRCB. 1993b. Decision report, Application #9201, Vacation Alberta corporation application to construct recreation and tourism facilities in the West Castle Valley, Near Pincher Creek, Alberta. Natural Resources Conservation Board, Edmonton.
Raine, M. and R. Riddell. 1991. Grizzly bear research in Yoho and Kootenay National Parks. Canadian Parks Service Report, Calgary, Alberta.
Russell, R.H., J.W. Nolan, N.G. Woody, and G.H. Anderson. 1979. A study of the grizzly bear in Jasper National Park. Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton. 102 pp. plus 10 appendicies.
PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
Woods, John. Research ecologist. Glacier/Revelstoke National Parks, Revelstoke, B.C.
Figure 1. Home ranges of radio-collared male grizzly bears, 1994 – 1998.
Figure 2. Home ranges of radio-collared female grizzly bears , 1994 – 1998.

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